1.line of reasoning、the use of evidence
5.sort of evidence strengthening the argument
The following appeared in a speech that the President made to all students at inaugural ceremony of a new semester.
Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument. In your discussion, be sure to analyze the line of reasoning and the use of evidence in the argument. For example, you may need to consider what questionable assumptions underlie the thinking and what alternative explanations or counterexamples might weaken the conclusion. You can also discuss what sort of evidence would strengthen or refute the argument, what changes in the argument would make it more logically sound, and what, if anything, would help you better evaluate its conclusion.
第一句：line of reasoning：
The words that the president presented in his speech to all the students are in a sound-good inference: if studying hard, we can gain a high score.
Most conspicuously, the argument makes such an absolute assumption that to study hard is the only way to get a high score, and it does fit well any of students.
Apparently, some cases surely exist that some students, no matter how hard they, are still not able to get high scores in some subjects.
For example, if it were true, then each student would be capable of attending Olympics Math Competition. But in fact most of students have not done that, since they know no matter how many problems they drill, but still can not get a high score.
第五句：how to improve：
If the president were not just presenting it as some authoritative words but analyze more specifically for students’ real conditions, it is surely believed that what the president says will exactly help students a lot in their study.